Attributional Style in Adults

This page has a listing of Dr. Martin E.P. Seligman’s books and other publications on the topic of Attributional Style in adults.

If you would like to see a complete listing of Dr. Seligman’s publications, please see his Curriculum Vitae.



Seligman, M.E.P. (1990). Learned Optimism. New York: Knopf.
Paperback Edition: Pocket Books (Simon & Schuster), 1991
Audio Edition: Simon & Schuster, 1991

Buchanan, G. and Seligman, M.E.P. (Eds.). (1995). Explanatory Style. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.



Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., and Teasdale, I. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49-59.

Abramson, L.Y., Garber, J., Edwards, N., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1978). Expectancy changes in depression and schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 165-179.

Seligman, M.E.P., Abramson, L.Y., Semmel, A., and von Baeyer, C. (1979). Depressive attributional style. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 242-247.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1980). A learned helplessness point of view. In L. Rehm (Ed.), Behavior Therapy for Depression. New York: Academic Press, 123-142.

Abramson, L.Y., Garber, J., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1980). Learned helplessness in humans: An attributional analysis. In J. Garber and M.E.P. Seligman (Eds.), Human Helplessness. New York: Academic Press, 3-35.

Miller, S.M. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1980). The reformulated model of helplessness and depression: Evidence and theory. In R. Neufeld (Ed.), Psychological Stress and Psychopathology. New York: McGraw-Hill. 149-178.

Peterson, C., Schwartz, S.M., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1981). Self-blame and depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 253-259.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1981). Helplessness and attributional style in depression: Parts I and II. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykoilogforening, 18, 3-18, and 53-59.

Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L.T., Metalsky, G.I., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287-300.

Raps, C.S., Peterson, C., Reinhard, K.E., Abramson, L.Y., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1982). Attributional style among depressed patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 102-103.

Metalsky, G.I., Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., Semmel, A., and Peterson, C. (1982). Attributional styles and life events in the classroom: Vulnerability and invulnerability to depressive mood reactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 612-617.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1984). Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347-374.

Alloy, L.B., Peterson, C., Abramson, L.Y., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1984). Attributional style and the generality of learned helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 681-687.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1984). Hilflosigkeit, Attributionsstil, und Depression. In F.E. Weinert and Rainer H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metakognition, Motivation, und Lernen. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 164-191.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1985). The learned helplessness model of depression: Current status of theory and research. In E.E. Beckman and W.R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression: Treatment, assessment and research. Homewood, IL: Dorsey, 914-939.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Schulman, P. (1986). Explanatory style as a predictor of productivity and quitting among life insurance agents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832-838.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1987). Explanatory style and illness. Journal of Personality, 55, 237-265.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1987). Predicting depression, poor health and presidential elections. Science and Public Policy Seminar sponsored by the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Washington, D.C., February.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1987). Explanatory style and depression. In D. Magnusson and A. Ohman, (Eds.), Psychopathology: An Interactional Perspective. New York: Academic Press, 125-139.

Schulman, P., Seligman, M.E.P., and Amsterdam, D. (1987). The attributional style questionnaire is not transparent. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 391-395.

Kamen, L. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1987). Explanatory style and health. In M. Johnston and T. Marteau (Eds.), Current psychological research and reviews: Special issue on health psychology, 6, 207-218.

Seligman, M.E.P., Castellon, C., Cacciola, J., Schulman, P., Luborsky, L., Ollove, M., and Downing, R. (1988). Explanatory style change during cognitive therapy for unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 1-6.

Seligman, M.E.P., Kamen, L.P., and Nolen‑Hoeksema, S. (1988). Explanatory style across the life-span: Achievement and health. In E.M. Hetherington, R.M. Lerner and M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Child Development in Life-Span Perspective, Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 91-114.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1989). Explanatory style: Predicting depression, achievement, and health. In M.D. Yapko (Ed.), Brief Therapy Approaches to Treating Anxiety and Depression. N.Y., N.Y.: Brunner/Mazel, Inc., 5-32.

Schulman, P., Castellon, C., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1989). Assessing explanatory style: The Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations and the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 505-512.

Seligman, M.E.P., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Thornton, N., and Thornton, K.M. (1990). Explanatory style as a mechanism of disappointing athletic performance. Psychological Science, 1, 143-146.

Burns, M.O. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1991). Explanatory style, helplessness, and depression. In C.R. Snyder and D.R. Forsyths (Eds.), Handbook of Social and Clinical Psychology. New York: Pergamon Press, 267-284.

Sethi, S. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1993). Optimism and fundamentalism. Psychological Science, 4, 256-259.

Schulman, P., Keith, D., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1993). Is optimism heritable? A study of twins. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 569-574.

Satterfield, J.M. and Seligman, M.E.P., (1994). Military aggression and risk predicted by explanatory style. Psychological Science, 5, 77-82.

Haaga, D.A.F., Ahrens, A.H., Schulman, P., Seligman, M.E.P., DeRubeis, R.J. and Minarik, M.L. (1995). Metatraits and cognitive assessment: Application to attributional style and depressive symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 121-142.

Lee, Y.T. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1997). Are Americans more optimistic than Chinese? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 32-40.

Satterfield, J.M., Monahan, J., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1997). Law school performance predicted by explanatory style. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 15, 1-11.

Gillham, J.E., Shatte, A.J., Reivich, K.J., & Seligman, M.E.P. (1998). Optimism, pessimism, and explanatory style. In E.C. Chang (Ed.) Optimism and pessimism. Washington, D.C.: APA Press.