CAVE Technique

This page has a listing of Dr. Martin E.P. Seligman’s books and other publications on the Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations (CAVE).

If you would like to see a complete listing of Dr. Seligman’s publications, please see his Curriculum Vitae. The letters and numbers preceding the publications below correspond to those in the Vitae.



Buchanan, G. and Seligman, M.E.P. (Eds.). (1995). Explanatory Style. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.



Peterson, C., Luborsky, L., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1983). Attributions and depressive mood shifts: A case study using the symptom-context method. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 96-103.

Peterson, C., Bettes, B., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1985). Depressive symptoms and unprompted causal attributions: Content analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 379-82.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1987). Predicting depression, poor health and presidential elections. Science and Public Policy Seminar sponsored by the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Washington, D.C., February.

Kamen, L. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1987). Explanatory style and health. In M. Johnston and T. Marteau (Eds.), Current psychological research and reviews: Special issue on health psychology, 6, 207-218.

Self-Administered training in the CAVE technique: Content analysis of verbatim explanations.

Seligman, M.E.P., Kamen, L.P., and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1988). Explanatory style across the life-span: Achievement and health. In E.M. Hetherington, R.M. Lerner and M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Child Development in Life-Span Perspective, Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 91-114.

Peterson, C., Seligman, M.E.P. and Vaillant, G. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style as a risk factor for physical illness: A thirty-five year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 23-27.

Zullow, H., Oettingen, G., Peterson, C., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style in the historical record: Caving LBJ, Presidential candidates and East versus West Berlin. American Psychologist, 43, 673-682.

Burns, M. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1989). Explanatory style across the lifespan: Evidence for stability over 52 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 118-124.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1989). Explanatory style: Predicting depression, achievement, and health. In M.D. Yapko (Ed.), Brief Therapy Approaches to Treating Anxiety and Depression. N.Y.: Brunner/Mazel, Inc., 5-32.

Schulman, P., Castellon, C., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1989). Assessing explanatory style: The Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations and the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 505-512.

Oettingen, G. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1990). Pessimism and behavioral signs of depression in East versus West Berlin. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 207-220.

Kamen-Siegel, L., Rodin, J., Seligman, M.E.P. and Dwyer, C. (1991). Explanatory style and cell-mediated immunity. Health Psychology, 10, 229-235.

Seligman, M.E.P., Peterson, C., Schulman, P., and Castellon, C. (1992). The Explanatory Style Scoring Manual. In C.P. Smith (Ed.), Motivation and Personality: Handbook of Thematic Content Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 383.

Steptoe, A., Reivich, K. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1993). Mozart's Optimism: A study of explanatory style. The Psychologist, 69-71.

Colligan, R., Offord, K., Malinchoc, M., Schulman, P., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1994). CAVEing the MMPI: Seligman's attributional model and the assessment of explanatory style. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 71-95.


Schulman, P., Castellon, C., and Seligman, M.E.P. (December, 1988). Guidelines for extracting and rating spontaneous explanations.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1984). Content analysis of verbatim explanations: The CAVE technique for assessing explanatory style.

Rettew, D.C., Reivich, K., Peterson, C., Seligman, D.A., and Seligman, M.E.P. Professional baseball, basketball and explanatory style: Predicting performance in the Major League.